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Marc Leman notes (Leman 1996), "experiments with Shepard-tones have contributed to a decline of the phenomenological approach to pitch perception." Indeed, as Leman further points out, only when referenced against such an approach can we call Shepard tones "paradoxical" or "illusory."

In the next chapter, we study further the effect of shepard tones, taking a look at Diana Deutsch's investigation of the so-called "tritone paradox."